“The Story of Cesar Chavez.” United Farm Workers. United Farm Workers, 2006. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.< http://www.ufw.org/_page.php?inc=history/07.html&menu=research>

Murguia, Lucia. “Roses and Thorns.” Borderzine. UTEP, 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://borderzine.com/2010/04/roses-and-thorns-painter-gaspar-enriquez-students-are-his-inspiration/>

Castañeda, Oscar Rosales. “Timeline: Movimiento from 1960-1985.“ Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project. University of Washington.n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2011 <http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/mecha_timeline.htm>

Ester Hernandez. California College of the Arts. n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.esterhernandez.com/index.html>
Ester Hernandez:
  • Best known for pastel work, paintings, and prints.
  • Pioneer of the Chicana/o civil rights art movement.
  • Work portrays Chicana women
  • Reflects: political, social, and ecological issues and well as some spiritual themes
    • A member of Las Mujeres Muralistas
    • A Latina women’s mural group
    • San Francisco based
  • Started in the early 70’s Work has been featured in many solo and group exhibitions in the U.S. and internationally
    • Her work is in many permanent collections including that of:
    • Smithsonian National Museum of American Art
    • The Library of Congress
    • San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
    • Mexican Museum in San Francisco and Chicago
    • Cheech Marin
    • Frida Kahlo Studio Museum in Mexico City
Personal Life
  • Born in California’s San Joaquin Valley
  • One of six siblings
  • Born to parents who were farm workers
  • Credits her artistic talent to growing up with a creative family
  • Her mother and grandmother were skilled embroiderers
  • Her grandfather a master carpenter
  • Her father a amateur photographer and visual artist
    • Attended U.C. Berkeley in the seventies

Marin, Cheech., Max Benavidez, Constance Cortez, and Tere Romo. Chicano Visions: Painters on the Verge. New York: Bulfinch, 2002. Print.
Gaspar Enríquez:
Personal Life
  • Born in El Paso, Texas
  • Received art training in Los Angeles
  • Received a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University of Texas at El Paso
  • Received a Master of Arts degree at New Mexico State University
  • Teaches art at Bowie High School in El Paso
  • Has been featured in many exhibitions including: CARA- Chicano Art: Resistance and Affirmation 1665-1985
  • Much of his work is inspired by the students he teaches
Ester Hernandez:
Personal Life
  • Of Mexican and Yaqui decent
  • Raised in Dinuba, California
  • Hernandez family has been involved in the struggle for farm workers’ rights since the 1930’s
  • Moved to the bay area to study Chicano Studies at Laney College in the 1970’s
  • Received a degree in art and graduated with honors from the University of California Berkeley
  • While at Berkeley Hernandez became involved with Las Mujeres Muralistas a Chicana muralist group.
  • Though she works as a muralist and a painter she primarily considers herself a printmaker.
The Chicano Collection. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.thechicanocollection.net/home.html>
Chicano Movement:
  • Started in the early sixties as a way to bring awareness to the injustices that Mexican farm workers faced such as:
  • Unfair wages
  • Deplorable working and housing conditions
  • Child labor
    • Cesar Chavez was one of the most important activists in the fight for farm labor rights .
    • Chavez used strikes, protests, and boycotts in order to persuade employers and well as governments to improve working conditions for workers, including:
      • The 1965 walkout and strike of farm workers in Delano, California that lasted five years
      • The 1965 nationwide boycott of California grapes.
Gaspar de Alba, Alicia. Chicano Art: Inside/Outside the Master’s House. Texas: University of Texas, 1998. Print.
  • “Whatever the derivation of the word ‘Chicano’. . .to apply it to oneself is a political act. It is an act of cultural identification with one’s Mexican-Spanish-Indio heritage. One who seeks to become assimilated in the Anglo-American society would not use ‘Chicano’”-Carlota Cárdenas, 1977
  • Self-definition as Chicana/o unlike Hispanic or Mexican-American did not impose a dominant culture.